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Jurisdiction II: Global Networks/Local Rules

September 11-12, 2000
San Francisco, CA

Licensing as a Jurisdictional Mechanism

Anita Ramasastry
Professor and Associate Director
Center for Law, Commerce & Technology
University of Washington School of Law, USA


Preface

As governments struggle to find solutions to the problems of Internet regulation and enforcement, the industry groups, individuals and advocacy groups often take the lead: creating standards and policies for governing the use of the Internet. This page is a resource documenting various ways the Internet community attempts to regulate itself. "Self-regulation" refers to standards, codes of conduct, procedures, rules, etc that are not legally enforceable but are implemented on by groups or individuals on a voluntary basis. This primer is divided into categories that deal with the central topics addressed as part of global efforts towards self-regulation on the Internet. These attempts at self-regulation are promulgated by government agencies, to trade associations, lobbyists, lawyers, consumers, and interested citizens.

The Internet is a quickly changing medium where new possibilities appear daily. Consequently, policies, the legal landscape, and perceptions of threats in cyberspace shift as new technology makes problems obsolete or new ways of transacting and interacting online emerge. In an effort to keep up with these changes, this primer will be continually updated through the efforts of researchers at the Center for Law Commerce and Technology at the University of Washington. Any suggestions for additions or revisions can be sent to lct@u.washington.edu

The Center for Law Commerce and Technology has not evaluated any of the listings included in this primer in terms of their content. None of the resource on this page are endorsed by either the Center for Law Commerce and Technology or the University of Washington and care should be taken before relying on any of the recommendations or content contained on any of the sites listed in this report.

Table Of Contents

  Privacy / Data Protection
  1. Organizations Publishing Guidelines on Use of Private Information
    1. Governmental Sources
    2. Non-governmental Organizations
      1. ISP Guidelines
      2. Non-profit and Private Association Created Guidelines
  2. Examples of Privacy Policies
  3. Published Reports on Internet Privacy
  4. Organizations With Online Privacy Sites
  5. On-line Seals
  Online Marketing Practices/ Unsolicited Email
  1. Unsolicited Email/Anti-Spam Organizations
  2. "How to" Guide for Internet Marketers
  3. Internet Service Providers' Policies with Regard to Unsolicited Email
  4. Web, E-mail, and Usenet Acceptable Use Policies (AUP)
  5. Reports and FAQs about Unsolicited Email
  Harmful Content
  1. In General
  2. Rating Systems
  3. Sites About Filters
  4. Filters
  5. Family Resources
  6. Articles
  Illegal Content
  1. Generally
  2. Child Pornography
    1. Watch Organizations
    2. Tiplines
  3. Prostitution
  4. Fraud
  Health Care Information
  1. Proposed Guidelines
  2. Reports
  Online Dispute Resolution  

Consumer Fraud Prevention For Online Transactions

  1. Reliability Seals and Sites
  2. Complaint Centers
  3. Medical Fraud
  4. Auction Fraud
  5. General Information and Lists of Known Scams
  Gambling
  1. Trade Association Guidelines
  2. Reports on Policy and Regulation of Internet Gambling
  Internet Auctions
  1. Tips for Consumers
  2. Recommended Policies
  Authentication/ Electronic Signatures
  1. Authentication
  2. Encryption


Privacy / Data Protection Contents of this section
  1. Organizations Publishing Guidelines on Use of Private Information
    1. Governmental Sources
    2. Non-governmental Organizations
      1. ISP Guidelines
      2. Non-profit and Private Association Created Guidelines
  2. Examples of Privacy Policies
  3. Published Reports on Internet Privacy
  4. Organizations With Online Privacy Sites
  5. On-line Seals
Back to Table of Contents

  1. Organizations Publishing Guidelines on Use of Private Information
    1. Governmental Sources
    2. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) OECD Guidelines for the Use of Private Information Guidelines which have served as the basis for virtually all privacy legislation and codes of conduct developed over the years. These principles, which form the basis of the US Privacy Act of 1974, have two purposes: 1) to form the basis for data protection regimes, and 2) ensure the free flow of information between and among nations. http://www.oecd.org/dsti/sti/it/secur/prod/PRIV-EN.HTM

      U.S. Fair Trade Commission Report on Internet Privacy: (May 22, 2000) Third in a series of Commission reports on the effectiveness of self-regulation in protecting consumer privacy on the Internet. The Commission concludes that while self-regulatory efforts have achieved some real progress, the lack of broad-based implementation of consumer protections online requires legislative action in order to fully protect personal information and build public confidence in electronic commerce. http://www.ftc.gov/os/2000/05/index.htm#22

      U.S. Fair Trade Commission Report on Fair Information Use: This report provides an excellent introduction to the issues surrounding fair use of private information collected over the Internet. http://www.ftc.gov/reports/privacy3/fairinfo.htm#Fair

      U.S. Fair Trade Commission Staff Report: Public Workshop on Consumer Privacy on the Global Information Infrastructure December 1996 http://www.ftc.gov/reports/privacy/privacy1.htm

      Electronic Network Consortium (ENC): A Japanese trade organization run by the New Media Development Association, an auxiliary organization of Ministry of International Trade and Industry. To date, 93 organizations are members of the ENC including most of major online service providers in Japan. Page includes a General Ethical Guideline for Running Online Services. http://www.nmda.or.jp/enc/index-english.html

      U.S. Department of Commerce Discussion Draft: Elements of Effective Self-Regulation for Protection of Privacy January 1998. http://www.ntia.doc.gov/reports/privacydraft/198dftprin.htm

    3. Non-governmental Organizations
      1. ISP Guidelines

      2. Telecom Service Association, Japan: Guideline for ISPs' codes of practice for Internet Service Providers (Feb. 16, 1998). http://www.telesa.or.jp/e_guide/e_guid01.html

        European Federation of National Internet Service Provider's Associations (EuroISPA): At present, 10 EU member states are represented covering over 500 ISPs across Europe. Euro-ISPA Aims and Objectives contains links to standards set out by several European Countries. http://www.euroispa.org/aims.html

        Internet Service Provider Association (ISPA) UK Code of Practice: ISPA members observe a Code of Practice (http://www.ispa.org.uk/practise.htm) and co-operate with the Internet Watch Foundation. http://www.iwf.org.uk/

        Canadian Association of Internet Providers (CAIP) Code of Conduct. http://www.caip.ca/caipcode.htm

        Mississippi Internet Service Providers Association (MISPA) Code of Conduct. http://www.mispa.org/code.html

        Florida Internet Service Provider's Association (FISPA) Code of Conduct. http://www.fispa.org/code.html

        Association des fournisseurs d'accès à des services en ligne et à Internet (AFA) (Association of access providers to online services and Internet). http://www.afa-france.com/

      3. Non-profit and Private Association Created Guidelines
      4. The Internet Society (ISOC): Codes of Conduct. ISOC, a professional membership society with more than 150 organizational and 6,000 individual members in over 100 countries, provides leadership in addressing issues that confront the future of the Internet. It is the organization home for the groups responsible for Internet infrastructure standards, including the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and the Internet Architecture Board (IAB). Internet RFCs related to code of conduct http://info.isoc.org/policy/conduct/conduct.html

        Internet Chamber of Commerce Report by Susan E. Gindin, Creating an Online Privacy Policy 10/ 12, 1998 Provides information and guidelines for Internet businesses creating privacy policies. http://www.icc.org/privacygindin.htm

        The Global Internet Liberty Campaign A coalition formed at the annual meeting of the Internet Society in Montreal. Members include the American Civil Liberties Union, the Electronic Privacy Information Center, Human Rights Watch, the Internet Society, Privacy International, the Association des Utilisateurs d'Internet, and other civil liberties and human rights organizations. http://www.gilc.org/

        U.S. Privacy Protection Commission: Recommendations for Fair Information Practices. http://www.staff.uiuc.edu/~dlinowes/practice.htm

        The Direct Marketing Association (DMA): Marketing Online: Privacy Principles and Guidance The DMA is the oldest and largest trade association for users and suppliers in the direct, database and interactive marketing field. The DMA has more than 4,600 member organizations, commercial as well as not-for-profit, from the United States and over 53 nations on six continents. Although the guidelines apply to marketing in all media. This report highlights issues, principles and illustrations unique to online and Internet marketing. They cover: Unsolicited Advertising; Online Data Collection From or About Children. http://www.the-dma.org/library/guidelines/#E

        World Wide Web Consortium (W3C): The W3C Platform for Privacy Preferences (P3P) Project. The Platform for Privacy P3P's design allows Web sites to deliver automated privacy statements, and makes it possible for users' browsers to review the statements. Users may then make informed decisions on how and when their information may be used. P3P privacy statements are expressed in the W3C's widely deployed Extensible Markup Language (XML). http://www.w3.org/P3P/

        Online Privacy Alliance: A diverse group of more than 80 global corporations and associations who introduce and promote business-wide actions to create an environment of trust and foster the protection of individuals' privacy online. Summary of Proposal for Effective Enforcement of Self-Regulation. http://www.privacyalliance.org/resources/enforcement.shtml

        International Chamber of Commerce: Guidelines on Advertising and Marketing on the Internet ICC is the world business organization, the only representative body that speaks on behalf of enterprises from all sectors in every part of the world and promotes an open international trade and investment system and the market economy. Principles for Responsible Advertising and Marketing over the Internet, World Wide Web, Online Services and Electronic Networks, April 2,1998. http://www.iccwbo.org/home/statements_rules/rules/1998/Internet_guidelines.asp

  2. Examples of Privacy Policies
  3. Georgetown University: student conduct policy for the use of the university server. http://www.georgetown.edu/student-affairs/stconduc/compuse1.htm

    University of Washington: Student conduct policy for use of university server. Includes guidelines involving privacy. http://www.washington.edu/computing/rules/guidelines.html

    Lockergnome: Email newsletter for computer software and hardware experts. http://www.lockergnome.com/privacy.html

    Amazon.com: Leader in e-commerce. http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/subst/misc/policy/privacy.html

  4. Published Reports on Internet Privacy
  5. Internet Watch Foundation (IWF): Third Annual Report (1999) Formed in October 1996 the IWF is an independent organization funded by United Kingdom Internet Service Providers. This reports on IWF's monitoring efforts with regards to illegal and harmful content. http://www.iwf.org.uk/press/annual3.html

    PrivacyRatings.org: Rates the privacy policies of Web sites. http://www.privacyratings.org/

    Online Privacy Alliance: Study of privacy policies based on a census of the Top 100 ".com" Web sites visited by consumers at home drawn from a sampling frame of the top 7500 URL's based on unduplicated visits during. (Jan. 1999) http://www.privacyalliance.org/resources/100_summary.shtml

    Minding Your Own Business: Privacy Policies in Principle and in Practice Part I - Doing the Right Thing, Scott Killingsworth. Excellent Report on Privacy and the Internet http://www.pgfm.com/publications/rightthing.html

    AT&T Labs-led research study: Beyond Concern: Understanding Net Users' Attitudes About Online Privacy suggests that a variety of approaches may be needed to make people feel secure about the privacy of their personal information on the Internet. (April 14, 1999) http://www.research.att.com/projects/privacystudy/

    Georgetown Internet Privacy Policy Study: Assesses the extent to which U.S. consumer-oriented web sites disclose their information practices and policies. http://www.msb.edu/faculty/culnanm/gippshome.html

    California Health Care Foundation: Report on the Status of Online Publication of Medical Information at Health Web Sites http://ehealth.chcf.org/priv_pol3/index_show.cfm?doc_id=33

    Vice President Gore's Announcement of a Privacy Action Plan: A comprehensive privacy action plan from the Clinton Administration to give people more control over personal information. 5/14, 1998. http://www.epic.org/privacy/laws/gore_release_5_14_98.html

    President William J. Clinton and Vice President Albert Gore, Jr.: A Framework For Global Electronic Commerce Washington, D.C. http://www.iitf.nist.gov/eleccomm/ecomm.htm#privacy

    The Federal Trade Commission: Privacy Online: A Report to Congress (6/98) Covers various aspects of privacy on the Internet http://www.ftc.gov/reports/privacy3/toc.htm

    FTC report to Congress on Internet Privacy: 6/98 www.ftc.gov/reports/privacy3/index.htm

    The Death of Online Privacy? Raymond Wacks, Professor of Law and Legal Theory, University of Hong Kong, a Paper given at the 13th Annual BILETA Conference: 'The Changing Jurisdiction' March 27-28, 1998.Trinity College, Dublin. http://www.bileta.ac.uk/98papers/wacks.html

  6. Organizations With Online Privacy Sites
  7. The American Civil Liberties Union The nation's foremost advocate of individual rights -- litigating, legislating, and educating the public on a broad array of issues affecting individual freedom in the United States. (www.aclu.org/issues/privacy/hmprivacy.html)

    Center for Democracy and Technology, (CDT):"Works to promote democratic values and constitutional liberties in the digital age. With expertise in law, technology, and policy, CDT seeks practical solutions to enhance free expression and privacy in global communications technologies. CDT is dedicated to building consensus among all parties interested in the future of the Internet and other new communications media." (www.cdt.org/privacy)

    Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC): "A nonprofit organization established to focus public attention on emerging civil liberties issues and to protect privacy, the First Amendment, and constitutional values. On the Web site, consumers can subscribe to the EPIC Alert newsletter and get the history behind the government regulation debate." (www.epic.org)

    Electronic Frontier Foundation, (EFF): "A nonprofit organization working to protect civil liberties are protected on the Internet and in all digital communication arenas. Provides a free telephone hotline for questions regarding legal rights, and will answer your technical (e.g. "How do I connect to the Internet?") and legal (e.g. "Does my boss have the right to read my e-mail?") questions via telephone, snail mail, and e-mail." (www.eff.org)

    National Fraud Information Center (NFIC): A nationwide toll-free hotline for advice on telephone solicitations and how to report telemarketing fraud. The Internet Fraud Watch section provides tips, articles, bulletins, and other information on how to avoid fraud, protect your privacy, and surf the Internet safely and enjoyably. http://www.fraud.org/Internet/intset.htm

    Privacy Rights Clearinghouse, (PRC): PRC publications give you in-depth information on a broad range of privacy issues. Includes section on identity theft resources. (www.privacyrights.org)

    Privacy.net: Extensive archives on consumer privacy at federal and state levels. http://www.privacy.net/

    Tech Law Journal: Decisions, legislation, news, and other materials on privacy, encryption, censorship, copyright and other online legal issues. http://www.techlawjournal.com/

    US PIRG's Consumer Credit & Privacy Page: Reports, testimony, fact sheets and advice on credit reports, identity theft and privacy. http://www.pirg.org/consumer/credit/index.htm

  8. On-line Seals
  9. TRUSTe:-"TRUSTe" an independent, non-profit initiative to build users' trust and confidence in the Internet by promoting principles of fair information practices. TRUSTe has been sponsored by some key Internet businesses. A logo on the member company's web page assures users that the organization has agreed not to knowingly list information on general users without prior consent; block reverse searches; and issue only aggregate use statistics which cannot be linked to individual users. Members include Microsoft, Intel and AOL.com http://www.truste.org/

    The Better Business Bureau Online (BBBOnline): Privacy seal is somewhat similar to TRUSTe. see http://www.bbbonline.org/businesses/privacy/index.html. The BBBOnline also provides dispute resolution for privacy related disputes. http://www.bbbonline.org/businesses/privacy/DR/index.html

    Etrust: (still under development as of April 15, 2000) is a joint effort of the Electronic Frontier Foundation and industry representatives to set WWW standards for notification and certification of web site privacy and information-gathering practices. (July 10). The new PICS-compatible standard calls for graphic symbols depicting site policies on collection of personally-identifiable information, and use of that information, backed by an auditing & certification process, to protect the consumer. http://www.etrust.org/

    CPA WebTrust: This seal is more than a privacy seal, though protection of information is one of the areas guaranteed by the seal. The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants and the Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants have developed the CPA WebTrust Principles and Criteria and the related CPA WebTrust Seal of assurance to assist entities and their customers in assessing the risks of doing business electronically. http://www.cpawebtrust.org/


Online Marketing Practices/ Unsolicited Email Contents of this section
  1. Unsolicited Email/Anti-Spam Organizations
  2. "How to" Guide for Internet Marketers
  3. Internet Service Providers' Policies with Regard to Unsolicited Email
  4. Web, E-mail, and Usenet Acceptable Use Policies (AUP)
  5. Reports and FAQs about Unsolicited Email
Back to Table of Contents

  1. Unsolicited Email/Anti-Spam Organizations
  2. The Coalition Against Unsolicited Commercial Email (CAUCE): "A group of Internet users who are fed up with spam have formed a coalition whose purpose is to amend 47 USC 227 -- the section of U.S. law that bans 'junk faxing'-- so that it will cover electronic mail as well." This site has an extensive set of links to antispam resources, groups and information. http://www.cauce.org/about/resources.shtml#web

    EuroCAUCE: The European affiliate of CAUCE, dedicated to outlawing spam throughout all of Europe. http://www.euro.cauce.org/en/index.html

    Boycott Internet Spam: A reference tool for antispam resources. It provides links to "practical tools to boycott spam," a tutorial on how to complain about spam, who the bad guys are and more. http://spam.abuse.net/spam/

    The Consumer Information Organization: Links to Do-Not-Call/Mail/E-Mail Lists, "a collection of information sources consumers can use to help themselves." http://consumer-info.org/error.asp?404;http://consumer-info.org/optout/index.asp

    CIAC Bulletin: I-005c: E-Mail Spamming countermeasures: The US government office that alerts the world to virus threats gets serious about Spam. http://ciac.llnl.gov/ciac/bulletins/i-005c.shtml

    Filter Spam Out!: A practical guide to procmail for filtering spam. An article introducing a freeware utility, procmail and showing users, step by step, how to create a mail filter.". http://www.sunworld.com/sunworldonline/swol-12-1997/swol-12-spam.html

    Blacklist of Internet Advertisers: One suggested boycott list of offending spammers. (Here is a good place to reiterate that the Law Commerce and Technology Center does not endorse this list. It is included strictly as an example of one approach to Internet self-regulation). http://math-www.uni-paderborn.de/~axel/BL/

    The Campaign to Stop Junk Email: What ISPs Can Do Advice for ISPs. Presently under construction. http://www.mcs.com/%7Ejcr/junkemailbusguide.html

    How to Get Rid of Junk Mail, Spam, and Telemarketers: This page offers tips, techniques, specific addresses to write, and numbers to call to get off junk mailing lists and telemarketing lists. http://www.csn.net/~felbel/jnkmail.html

    The Netcheck Commerce Bureau position on unsolicited E-mail: The Netcheck Commerce Bureau was "established to promote ethical business practices worldwide and to increase consumer and corporate confidence in purchasing products and services on the Internet." Includes a form here to file a complaint about spam. http://www.netcheck.com/spam.htm

  3. "How to" Guide for Internet Marketers
  4. Direct Marketing Association (DMA): Ethical guidelines for online marketers intended to provide individuals and organizations in all media with generally accepted principles of conduct for direct marketing. http://www.the-dma.org/library/guidelines/ethicalguidelines.shtml

    Advertising on Usenet: How To Do It, How Not To Do It: Discussion of acceptable and unacceptable ways to advertise. (Posted to news.announce.newusers, news.admin.misc, misc.entrepreneurs, news.admin.net-abuse.misc, news.misc. A list of cases involving spam maintained by Professor David Sorkin at John Marshall Law School in Chicago. http://www.jmls.edu/cyber/cases/spam.html

    The Campaign to Stop Junk Email: Why You Shouldn't Advertise by Email Guidance for current and potential Internet marketers. Presently under construction. http://www.mcs.com/%7Ejcr/junkemailbusguide.html

  5. Internet Service Providers' Policies with Regard to Unsolicited Email
  6. America Online's Policy regarding unsolicited bulk email: http://www.aol.com/info/bulkemail.html

    Panix Public Access Networks on filtering unsolicited mass e-mail: One ISP's implementation of site-wide e-mail filters which customers can choose whether or not to use http://www.panix.com/e-spam.html

    ReplyNet's position on Unsolicited Junk E-Mail.....: An Internet-based business' take on unsolicited e-mail and Internet advertising. http://www.reply.net/junkmail.html

    Wolf's Den Educational Services e-mail policy: An Internet site takes steps to prevent address harvesting by spammers trying to build up mailing lists. http://www.wolfsden.org/news-announce.html

  7. Web, E-mail, and Usenet Acceptable Use Policies (AUP)
  8. Acceptable use policies of selected Internet service providers accumulated by Professor David Sorkin of John Marshall Law School. http://www.jmls.edu/cyber/statutes/email/policies.html

    AOL's Newsgroup Terms of Service http://spam.abuse.net/spam/aups/aol.html

    DIGEX Acceptable Use Policy (AUP): Includes simple explanation of why the policies are in place. http://policy.support.digex.net/aup/

    UUNET Belgium's AUP Example from Europe http://village.uunet.be/ENG/Infodesk/html/Info_aup.html

    GulfNet AUP specifying, in part, that "E-mail is a person-to-person medium, not a broadcast medium." http://www.gulf.net/members/sla.stm

    NETural's AUP includes a charge of US $150.00 per user for unsolicited commercial e-mail. http://www.netural.com/docs/consumer/netural-aup.html

  9. Reports and FAQs about Unsolicited Email
  10. Statement by EFF, Junkbusters and several other privacy advocates regarding new push to have Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and software makers close a legal and technical loophole that permits commercial profiling & spamming of users of Web-based e-mail, via cookie files. http://www.eff.org/pub/Spam_cybersquatting_abuse/Spam/19991202_joint_profiling_pressrel.html

    Private Citizen: Dedicated to junking junk mail, spam and telemarketers. http://www.private-citizen.com/

    The Named: A non-profit grass roots organization founded by America's leading privacy advocates, dedicated to protecting your private data from being sold by others without your consent. http://named.org/

    Report by Roger Clarke: (Part-time fellow at the Australian National University and consultant specializing in electronic commerce, information infrastructure, and data surveillance and information privacy.) Provides a review of the spam phenomenon. Its approach is partly historical, partly anthropological, and partly analytical. http://www.anu.edu.au/people/Roger.Clarke/II/Spam.html

    "Figuring out fake E-Mail & Posts": Though not the easiest format to read, this FAQ provides guidance for deciphering which machine a fake E-mail or post came from, and who (generally or specifically) one should contact. http://digital.net/~gandalf/spamfaq.html

    The Net Abuse FAQ: General spam and abuse information. http://www.cybernothing.org/faqs/net-abuse-faq.html

    Spam FAQ: Explanation of how to find the site the Spam came from. http://home.bluemarble.net/~scotty/forgery.html


Harmful Content Contents of this section
  1. In General
  2. Rating Systems
  3. Sites About Filters
  4. Filters
  5. Family Resources
  6. Articles
Back to Table of Contents

  1. In General
  2. The European Commission: Promoting Best Use, Preventing Misuse To prevent illegal and harmful content being distributed on the Internet the European Commission promotes initiatives aimed at increasing general awareness among parents, teachers, public sector and the information industry about how to deal with the issue in practical terms. http://www2.echo.lu/best_use/best_use.html

    The Internet Watch Foundation (IWF): Founded when United Kingdom law enforcement officials sought to prosecute ISPs for distributing harmful and illegal content. A compromise led to a co-operative relationship between UK law enforcement authorities, the UK ISP industry, and user representatives. The IWF represents a form of self-regulation whereby industry abides by set of standards developed through consultation among all actors, including ISPs and police authorities. the conclusions of the IWF Advisory Board on content rating systems which are available from the IWF web site. http://www.iwf.org/uk.

    Internet Action Plan: Part of a coherent set of policies at EU level to deal with illegal and harmful content on the Internet. (as of April 14, 2000) this information is being transferred so it may require some searching http://www.cordis.lu/ist/ka3/home.html

  3. Rating Systems
  4. Internet Content Rating for Europe (INCORE): Created by a group of European organizations with a common interest in industry self-regulation and rating Internet content. It is now focused on creating a generic rating and filtering system suitable for European users. http://www.incore.org/

    Internet Content Rating Association (ICRA): Formed in April 1999. An international, independent, non-profit organization with offices in Washington, D.C, USA and Brighton, UK, that empowers the public, especially parents, to make informed decisions about electronic media by means of an open, objective, content advisory system. The RSACi system managed by ICRA provides consumers with information about the level of sex, nudity, violence, offensive language (vulgar or hate-motivated) in Web sites. To date, RSACi has been integrated into Microsoft's browser, Internet Explorer, and MicroSystem's Cyber Patrol Software. CompuServe (US and Europe) has also committed to rate all its content with the RSACi system. http://www.icra.org/

    Platform for Internet Content Selection (PICS): A set of technical standards developed by MIT's World Wide Web Consortium. "PICS is an infrastructure for associating labels (metadata) with Internet content." On this page find links to technical specifications, the PICS Interest Group, resources for developers of software and labeling services, lists of PICS-compatible products and services, hints on self-labeling, innovative uses of PICS labels and more. http://www.w3.org/PICS/ See also list of third party rating services for PICS (http://www.w3.org/PICS/raters.htm)

    What others are saying about PICS: Linked from PICS Web page. Links to what individuals, groups, organizations, the government and the media are saying about PICS and Internet labeling. http://www.w3.org/PICS/#links
    Global Internet Liberty Campaign (GILC): Submission on PICS A letter to the W3C expressing the opinion that PICS rules will "provide a tool for widespread global censorship." Members of GILC include the American Civil Liberties Union, the Electronic Privacy Information Center and Human Rights Watch. http://www.gilc.org/speech/ratings/gilc-pics-submission.html
    Filtering Information on the Internet: By Paul Resnick, chairman of the PICS working group of the World Wide Web Consortium. Paper covers the challenge involved with letting labels, such as those utilized by PICS, "guide our exploration of the Internet without limiting our travels." http://www.sciam.com/0397issue/0397resnick.html

    Cyber-Rights & Cyber-Liberties (UK): A nonprofit civil liberties organization. 'Who Watches the Watchmen: Internet Content Rating Systems, and Privatized Censorship' This report explains why the debates on regulation of Internet content should take place openly and with the involvement of the public at large rather than at the hands of a few industry based private bodies. http://www.leeds.ac.uk/law/pgs/yaman/watchmen.htm

    Rating the net: By Jonathan Weinberg, an associate professor at Wayne State University Law School. This paper discusses filtering technology, its background, effects on free speech, the accuracy of ratings on the net, what sites will blocked or rated, and whose access could be blocked. http://www.msen.com/~weinberg/rating.htm

  5. Sites About Filters
  6. The American Library Association: Affirms that the use of filtering software by libraries to block access to constitutionally protected speech violates the Library Bill of Rights. http://www.ala.org/alaorg/oif/filt_res.html

    Filtering Facts: "A non-profit organization that works to protect children from the harmful effects of pornography by promoting the use of filtering software in libraries." http://www.filteringfacts.org/

    Center for Democracy and Technology Issue Brief: Blocking and Filtering Content on the Internet after the CDA: Empowering Users and Families Without Chilling the Free Flow of Information Online "user empowerment technologies hold out the promise of promoting both free speech interests and the desire to protect kids online." http://www.cdt.org/speech/rating_issues.html

    Citizens Internet Empowerment Coalition: A broad group of Internet users, library groups, publishers, Internet service providers and civil liberties groups "fighting for the future of the First Amendment and free expression in the Information Age." http://www.ciec.org/

    Peacefire: Site dedicated to criticizing and demonstrating the drawbacks of filtering systems (http://www.peacefire.org/).

    The Electronic Privacy Information Center: Censorware: A Post-CDA Solution? Resource page on labeling and filtering technologies and the possible dangers they pose to free speech on the Internet. Links to many anti-filtering articles here. http://www.epic.org/free_speech/censorware/

    The Internet Filter Assessment Project: Ran from April to September 1997. "The purpose of this project was to take a hard look at Internet content filters from a librarian's point of view. Several dozen librarians from around the world participated. Some are filter proponents; some are not." Includes a summary report of the project's findings. http://www.bluehighways.com/tifap/

  7. Filters
  8. NetNanny: Operates by the parameters and definitions set by the administrator. http://www.netnanny.com

    Surfwatch: Another commercially available Internet rating system for blocking sites containing information the consumer has chosen to block. http://surfwatch.com/

    Safe Surf: A PICS-compatible Internet rating system http://www.safesurf.com/index.html

    CyberPatrol: Another Internet rating system. Blocks sites set by individuals with a password and has a default filter. http://www.cyberpatrol.com/dyn_hm.htm

    Cybersitter: PICS compatible filter. Sites are filtered on the basis of a review committee and customer suggestions. In addition, some sites have given voluntary self-ratings. Developed by Solid Oak Software. http://www.solidoak.com

    Filtering Software download site (Japanese) http://nmda.or.jp/enc/rating/index.html

  9. Family Resources

  10. GetNetWise: Resource for families and caregivers seeking to provide children with safe, educational, and entertaining online experiences. http://www.getnetwise.org

    Webwise Kids: The mission of this web site is to act as an Internet safety resource center for parents, teachers and children. http://www.webwisekids.com/

    The United Federation of Child-safe Web sites: (http://www.child-safe.com/mainmenu.html)

    Center for Democracy and Technology: Internet Family Empowerment White Paper: How Filtering Tools Enable Responsible Parents to Protect Their Children Online A white paper prepared by the in consultation with members of the Citizen's Internet Empowerment Coalition attending the July 16 White House meeting on Internet Parental Empowerment Tools. http://www.cdt.org/speech/empower.html

  11. Articles
  12. Ratings today, censorship tomorrow "The Net industry is rushing to embrace ratings systems for the Web. The technology will help parents keep their kids away from porn. It can also help anyone censor anything." An article in Salon Magazine. http://www.salon.com/july97/21st/ratings970731.html

    The American Civil Liberties Union, Fahrenheit 451.2: Is Cyberspace Burning? White Paper warning that "rating and blocking proposals may torch free speech on the Internet." http://www.aclu.org/issues/cyber/burning.html

    Labels and disclosure, An article by Esther Dyson that advocates "annotation" (labeling) over regulation for the Internet. Offers product information and overview of labeling and filtering technologies. Dyson is the chairperson of Edventure Holdings, a consulting and publishing firm. http://www.edventure.com/release1/1296.html

    Tyranny in the Infrastructure: The CDA was bad -- but PICS may be worse. An article in Wired. http://www.wired.com/wired/5.07/cyber_rights.html

    Internet Watch Foundation: Third Annual Report January - December 1999. The Internet Watch Foundation (IWF) was formed in October 1996 as an independent organization funded by United Kingdom Internet Service Providers. Reports on IWF's monitoring efforts with regards to illegal and harmful content. http://www.iwf.org.uk/press/annual3.html


Illegal Content Contents of this section
  1. Generally
  2. Child Pornography
    1. Watch Organizations
    2. Tiplines
  3. Prostitution
  4. Fraud
Back to Table of Contents

  1. Generally
  2. Commission of the European Communities: Report on illegal and harmful content on the Internet.10/1996 http://www.drugtext.org/legal/eu/eucnet1.htm

    Internet Watch Foundation Third Annual Report Jan 1999- Dec-1999: Report on efforts to monitor both illegal and harmful content. http://www.iwf.org.uk/press/annual3.html#illegal

    Internet Action Plan: Part of a coherent set of policies at EU level to deal with illegal and harmful content on the Internet. (as of April 14, 2000) this information is being transferred so it may require some searching at the below URL http://www.cordis.lu/ist/ka3/home.html

    Cyberangels: A 501(c)(3) program. "The one-stop-shop for all cyberspace safety, privacy and help needs."A cyber-neighborhood watch that operates worldwide by organizing volunteers (over 3000) from more than fourteen countries. Volunteers patrol the Internet looking for child pornography, child molesters and cyber-stalkers. Also offers a wide variety of educational and help services to the Internet community at large. Other "Cyberangels" find and review family-friendly websites, filter software products and Internet services. Specialized, trained volunteers, "Teenangels," "CyberMoms" and "CyberDads," also volunteer to speak at local community groups and schools around the country teaching Internet safety. A Cyber-911 help line gives netizens access to help when they need it online. http://www.cyberangels.org/index.html

  3. Child Pornography
    1. Watch Organizations
    2. PedoWatch: A non-profit organization in the United States composed of unpaid volunteers committed to reducing the sexual victimization of children on the Internet, especially preteens. They believe there is a strong link between the distribution of child pornography, the social tolerance of this material, and the sexual abuse of children http://pedowatch.org/leinfo/

      Ethical Hackers Against Pedophilia: Ethical Hackers Against Pedophilia (EHAP) is a 17 member secret organization of skilled computer technicians that surfs around the Internet looking for sex offenders who abuse children. http://www.hackers.com/ehap/.

      International Conference Combating Child Pornography on the Internet: Web site created for a 1999 international conference in Vienna. Includes links and online copies of papers presented there. http://www.stop-childpornog.at

    3. Tiplines
    4. Internet Meldpunt Kinderporno (Internet Hotline Against Child Pornography) Based in the Netherlands, the hotline was the first of its kind in Europe. Founded by the Dutch Foundation of Internet Providers (NLIP), the Dutch Internet Users, the National Criminal Intelligence Service (CRI), and the National Bureau Against Racial Discrimination and run by volunteers. http://www.meldpunt.org

      The CyberTipline is the Internet industry's self-regulation attempt in the United States. It was formed at the end of 1997 when the Internet industry came under pressure from the US government and general public to do something about children's increasing risk of exposure to pornography on the Internet. http://www.missingkids.com/cybertip

      Report on Tiplines and Vigilante groups opposing child pornography. http://www.uri.edu/artsci/wms/hughes/catw/ppitv.htm

  4. Prostitution
  5. Coalition Against Trafficking in Women: Report on use of Internet for exploitation of women and children includes some information on self-regulatory efforts by various groups. http://www.uri.edu/artsci/wms/hughes/catw/pprep.htm

  6. Fraud
  7. National Fraud Information Center (NFIC): A nationwide, toll-free hotline for advice on telephone solicitations and how to report telemarketing fraud. The Internet Fraud Watch section provides tips, articles, bulletins, and other information on how to avoid fraud, protect privacy, and surf the Internet safely. http://www.fraud.org

    National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG): Internet Scams: A Web of Lies and Deceit http://www.naag.org/consumer/Internet_scams.html


Health Care Information Contents of this section
  1. Proposed Guidelines
  2. Reports
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  1. Proposed Guidelines
  2. Health Internet Ethics (Hi-Ethics): Ethical Principles For offering Internet Health Services to Consumers A coalition of the most widely used consumer health Internet sites and information providers whose goal is to earn the consumer's trust and confidence in Internet health services. http://www.hiethics.org/Principles/index.asp

    The International Healthcare Coalition (IHC): A first draft of the "International e-Health Code of Ethics." The draft Code is a result of a three-day e-Health Ethics Summit held January 31 thru Feb. 2 in Washington, DC. There is an eight-week period of public comment. The draft will be revised for final publication on or about May 15, 2000. For more information and comments see http://www.ihealthcoalition.org

    The American Telemedicine Association (ATA): A non-profit association promoting greater access to medical care via telecommunications technology. Promotes three sets of guidelines: Patient Criteria, Health Provider Criteria, and Technology Criteria http://www.atmeda.org/news/newres.htm

    The Direct Marketing Association (DMA): Ethical Guidelines on Collection, Use and Transfer of Health-Related Data. The DMA has more than 4,600 member organizations, commercial as well as not-for-profit, from the United States and over 53 nations on six continents. Guidelines published October 1999 http://www.the-dma.org/library/guidelines/healthdata.shtml

    National Coalition for Patient Rights: A non-profit organization comprised of medical professionals and concerned citizens dedicated to restoring confidentiality to health care. Recommendations from white paper, "Protecting the Privacy of Medical Records: An Ethical Analysis" submitted to Congress, http://www.nationalcpr.org./WP-recomm.html

    The Health on the Net (HON) Foundation: A non-profit organization headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland that proposes benchmarks designed to ensure readers of heath-related web pages are aware of the source and purpose of the information presented. Organizations adhering to these benchmarks are permitted to display an HON Code seal. Subscribers to the HON seal agree to principles listed on this site http://www.hon.ch/HONcode/Conduct.html?HONConduct345456

    The United States Department of Health and Human Services: Information about the HHS standards adoption process, the workgroups and the progress of the Administrative Simplification effort mandated under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act will be made available on the HHS Data Council and NCVHS web pages at the following addresses: http://aspe.os.dhhs.gov/datacncl/ or http://aspe.os.dhhs.gov/ncvhs/.

    American Medical Association Guidelines for medical information Internet sites, March 22, 2000. The guidelines are designed to protect individual privacy, and provide assurance that the information is reliable. The guidelines were published in the Journal of the American Medical Association at http://jama.ama-assn.org/issues/v283n12/full/jsc00054.html

    The 11-19 Working Group comprised of online healthcare companies including Aetna/ US Healthcare Inc., and Medicalogic, Inc. and technology companies such as Sun Microsystems and VeriSign, Inc. Seeks to advance the best and most proven security standards for Internet healthcare systems and transactions. As of 4/30/2000, the guidelines are still under development http://www.11-19.org/guidelines.html

  3. Reports
  4. The Health Law Resource Privacy and Confidentiality in Clinical Data Management Systems: Why You Should Guard the Safe Provides a good overview of data use issues faced by the medical community as well as some guidelines for protecting information http://www.netreach.net/~wmanning/cdm.htm

    Georgetown University Medical Center is conducting a feasibility study of telemedicine support for US embassies in China, Cuba, Haiti and Niger. The study is based on secured Internet-based applications that will permit tele-radiology and tele-dermatology, and other store-and-forward-systems for clinical second opinion consultations. http://www.telemedicine.georgetown.edu/ProjectDepOfState.htm

    California Health Care Foundation: Report on the Status of Online Publication of Medical Information at Health Web Sites http://ehealth.chcf.org/priv_pol3/index_show.cfm?doc_id=33

    Roger Clarke, Health Care Privacy Issues Part-time Fellow at the Australian National University and a consultant specializing in electronic commerce, information infrastructure, and data surveillance and information privacy. This 1990 paper identifies some information privacy issues arising in relation to health care data arising in sole and group health care practices as well as in larger health care organizations. http://www.anu.edu.au/people/Roger.Clarke/DV/PaperMedical.html

    Electronic Frontier Foundation: EFF's comments to US Dept. of Health & Human Services, in opposition to the "Proposed Standards for Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information.". (Feb. 16, 2000) http://www.eff.org/pub/Privacy/Medical/20000216_eff_dhhs_medpriv_comments.html


Online Dispute Resolution Provided by Non-governmental Proprietary Entities

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Alternative Dispute Resolution is a fast growing area of law both on and off-line and the Internet offers two central advantages to litigation or conventional ADR. First, it can often provide the most practical forum when conventional law is not yet equipped to deal with disputes arising over emerging technology or when disputes arise between foreign nationals. Second, online dispute resolution can also use technology to facilitate negotiations, eliminating the necessity for a human intermediary. The entities listed below take a variety of approaches, some mimicking real-world mediation, or even trials, and others using technology to facilitate novel resolution techniques.

The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN): A non-profit corporation formed to assume responsibility for the IP address space allocation, protocol parameter assignment, domain name system management, and root server system management functions previously performed under U.S. Government contract by IANA and other entities. http://www.icann.org/

clickNsettle.com: Enables users to negotiate a legal dispute via a unique real-time fully interactive blind-bid process. Participants may submit and unlimited number of confidential settlement "bids" during the negotiation. Because "bids" are never revealed, the program eliminates the "posturing" and high costs associated with traditional litigation. http://clickNsettle.com

Cybersettle.com: Offers an online computer assisted method for settling insurance claims. Conceived and designed by two lawyers with extensive experience in settlement negotiation, Cybersettle gives its users the power to negotiate settlements with speed and confidentiality. http://cybersettle.com

Disputes.org: A consortium accredited by ICANN to resolve domain name disputes. http://www.disputes.org

EResolution: A technology based product that facilitates online dispute resolution and also manages an international network of mediators and arbitrators. Among other things, resolves domain name conflicts. http://eResolution.org

iCourthouse: A site that mimics a trial system using online jurors to resolve disputes. Disputes may be Internet related, such as those arising from auctions, or real world disputes such as neighborhood parking disputes. http://www.i-ourthouse.com/index.html

Internet Neutral: A dispute resolution service focussing on Internet businesses and their suppliers. http://Internetneutral.com/index.htm

National Arbitration Forum: The forum maintains a panel of unbiased and neutral arbitrators, each with at least 15 years experience arbitrating commercial, financial and business disputes. Each is qualified under local rules in their jurisdiction. Disputants may file claims online. Also has a section specializing in domain name disputes. http://www.arbforum.com

Online Mediators: Assists individuals and businesses resolve disagreements over the Internet." Mediation offered on several levels from voluntary free mediation to highly skilled expert mediation. http://onlinemediators.com

Resolution Forum, Inc.: A non-profit organization, created by leaders in the business, legal and medical communities in close association with the Center for Legal Responsibility at South Texas College of Law. http://www.resolutionforum.org

SettleOnline: An Internet based settlement tool that provides confidential dispute resolution online, set up by Resolute Systems Inc. Disputants make offers and demands that are not revealed to the other side. Programmed calculations match offers and demands to determine if a settlement is reached, removing personality conflicts and posturing between disputants. If the case does not settle then neither side is aware of the other's offer so they can select other ADR procedures. http://www.settleonline.com

Settlementnow.com: An independent Internet dispute resolution service focussing on insurance disputes. Allows users to make confidential demands and offers. http://settlementnow.com/how.asp

U.S. Settlement Corporation (U.S. Settle): Online service that mediates disputes involving corporations, insurance companies, self-insurers, municipalities, government agencies, claimants and attorneys http://www.ussettle.com/howworks.htm

Software Industry Information Association (SIIA): The "principal trade association for the software and digital content industry." Provides mediation services for members and therefore, naturally, focuses on software related issues http://www.siia.net/program/mediation.htm

The University of Massachusetts Center for Information Technology and Dispute Resolution: Online dispute resolution service that mediates disputes with eBay and Up4Sale, as well as domain name disputes and disputes involving webmasters. http://aaron.sbs.umass.edu/center/ombuds/default.htm

The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) Arbitration and Mediation Center: Established in 1994. An administrative unit of the International Bureau of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) in Geneva, Switzerland. Its purpose is to offer arbitration and mediation services for the resolution of commercial disputes between private parties involving intellectual property. WIPO is an intergovernmental organization headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. One of 16 specialized agencies of the United Nations system of organizations. http://arbiter.wipo.int/center/index.html


Consumer Fraud Prevention For Online Transactions Contents of this section
  1. Reliability Seals and Sites
  2. Complaint Centers
  3. Medical Fraud
  4. Auction Fraud
  5. General Information and Lists of Known Scams
Back to Table of Contents

For a general guideline for protecting oneself from online fraud, look at the American Bar Association's safeshopping.org.

  1. Reliability Seals and Sites

  2. Reliability seals are seals posted on websites indicating that the provider/ business posting the site has agreed to a specified set of standards. The entity issuing the seal is responsible for insuring that the companies posting their seal adheres to the standards to which they agreed.

    BBBOnline (Better Business Bureau Online): Reliability Seal Program: "Our mission is to help web users find reliable, trustworthy businesses online, and to help reliable businesses identify themselves as such, all via voluntary self-regulatory programs that help avoid government regulation of the Internet. We fulfill our mission by giving qualifying companies a seal to post on their website. The seal allows web shoppers to check BBB information on a company and be assured the company is reliable. http://www.bbbonline.org/businesses/reliability/index.html

    Public Eye: A Directory of Registered Safer Shopping Sites. A shopping resource listing sites that are continually monitored for reliability and customer satisfaction, and rated by real shoppers. http://www.thepubliceye.com

    Scamfreezone.com: Provides a safe list of home business opportunities on the Internet. A list of 280 Scamfreezone member sites offering business opportunities which have been certified, by the owner, as 'scam free'. All Member Sites have pledged, on the honor system, that their business opportunities are honest and genuine; they then get a free listing on this site. If any negative comments are received about any site, it will be investigated and its listing may be removed. http://www.scamfreezone.com/

  3. Complaint Centers

  4. Sites where dissatisfied consumers may report Internet Fraud.

    National Consumer Complaint Center: Consumers can report Internet fraud and false advertising. http://www.alexanderlaw.com/nccc/cb-ftc.html

    U.S. National Fraud Center: An excellent source of information on fraudulent uses of the Internet. Includes special alerts, an online incident report form, statistics on Internet fraud, and tips on avoiding various Internet scams. http://www.fraud.org/Internet/intset.htm

    U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC): How to Avoid Internet Investment Scams: Aimed at warning investors about fraudulent investing advice. (October 1998). http://www.sec.gov/consumer/cyberfr.htm. Includes a complaint center for investment related fraud. http://www.sec.gov/enforce/comctr.htm

  5. Medical Fraud
  6. QuackWatch: A nonprofit corporation that combats health-related frauds, myths, fads, and fallacies. Its primary focus is on quackery-related information that is difficult or impossible to get elsewhere. A member of Consumer Federation of America, was founded by Dr. Stephen Barrett in 1969 as the Lehigh Valley Committee Against Health Fraud, it was incorporated in 1970 and assumed its current name in 1997. Includes hundreds of pages of information about health scams. http://www.quackwatch.com/

  7. Auction Fraud
  8. US Federal Trade Commission (FTC): Going, Going, Gone: Law Enforcement Efforts to Combat Internet Auction Fraud FTC guide on Internet auction fraud Feb 2000 http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/reports/int-auction.pdf

  9. General Information and Lists of Known Scams
  10. Webguardian: An Internet monitor that watches and documents consistent consumer problems and complaints Provides tools and resources Net consumer can use to combat cyber-fraud and deception, as well as links to law enforcement and consumer protection agencies and government watchdog organizations. http://www.webguardian.com/

    Internet Scam Busters: Calls itself "The #1 Publication on Internet Fraud." Information on thousands of Internet scams, viruses and urban legends. http://www.scambusters.org

    Internet Scams Ezine: A free bi-weekly ezine providing articles to help defend the opportunist against the scam artist, and it also examines selected business opportunities for credibility, "taking an unbiased and honest view in showing both the positive and negative aspects of all the opportunities reviewed." http://www.bcity.com/newsletter/archived.html

    U.S. Bureau of Consumer Protection Report: FTC Consumer Education effort that documents various Internet fraud, including false Internet companies and sales pitches, to credit restoration schemes. http://www.ftc.gov/reports/fraud97/consumer.htm

    ScamWatch: An agency of InterGov, provides the online community with complete fraud Protection services. Services include investigation, tracking, recording and removal of fraudulent activities on the Internet. All services are free. http://www.scamwatch.com/

    The National Cybercrime Training Partnership Link Page: A list of hundreds of law enforcement sites that deal with Internet fraud http://www.nctp.org/weblinks.html

    American Society of Industrial Security (ASIS): This site contains some interesting information about general corporate security issues including avoiding fraud. http://www.westernsecurityinc.com/cssc.htm

    The Consumer Information Organization: A collection of information sources about consumer protection, telemarketing laws & regulations, junk e-mail, privacy, etc. consumers can use to help themselves. http://consumer.net/

    Scams on the Net: Contains a long, alphabetized, searchable list of Internet scams http://advocacy-net.com/scammks.htm


Gambling Contents of this section
  1. Trade Association Guidelines
  2. Reports on Policy and Regulation of Internet Gambling
Back to Table of Contents

  1. Trade Association Guidelines
  2. Interactive Gaming Council: An association of Internet gambling organizations. Includes a seal system for gambling sites, a FAQs system. Members have access to policy forums, etc. http://www.igcouncil.org/

    Internet Gaming Commission: A free site providing information about gambling on the web. Supported by individual gamblers who, in return for a membership fee, ARE permitted to submit and read postings on various gaming sites as well as receive warnings about accredited sites that violate the commission's code of conduct. http://www.Internetcommission.com/accreditation.asp. Also has a dispute resolution service that provides non-mandatory mediation and arbitration for licensed sites. Anyone with a complaint may fill in the on-line form and the Commission will attempt to work as an intermediary in resolving it. http://www.Internetcommission.com/dispute.asp

  3. Reports on Policy and Regulation of Internet Gambling
  4. American Gaming Association: Position on Internet Gambling "The American Gaming Association (AGA) opposes all forms of unregulated and illegal gambling and supports appropriately drafted legislation to update the Wire Communications Act to account for the advent of the Internet." http://www.americangaming.org/casino_entertainment/aga_facts/facts.cfm/ID/17

    Australia Senate Committee Report on Online Gambling in Australia: Includes proposals from other countries: US, UK, South Africa, Europe and the Caribbean. (March 16 2000) http://www.aph.gov.au/senate/committee/it_ctte/gambling/index.htm

    Cato Institute, Tom W. Bell, Internet Gambling: Popular, Inexorable, and (Eventually) Legal. "The Internet offers new and better access to something that American consumers demand in spades: gambling. Lawmakers and prohibitionists can neither effectively stop Internet gambling nor justify their attempts to do so. In the long run it will, like so many other forms of gambling, almost certainly become legal. In the short run, however, Internet gambling faces some formidable opponents." (March 8, 1999) http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa-336es.html

    Gaming on the Internet, Mark G. Tratos (Managing Partner of the Intellectual Property and Entertainment law firm of Quirk & Tratos) examines the present development of gaming on the Net, and considers the legal and business restraints which constrain its present activity. While a technological analysis is beyond the scope of this effort, considers briefly the impact that some technological issues have on the potential of the proposed electronic gaming industry. (1996) http://lviplaw.com/gaming2.html

    The Technical Feasibility of Regulating Gambling on the Internet, Roger Clarke (Part-time fellow at the Australian National University and consultant specializing in electronic commerce, information infrastructure, and data surveillance and information privacy) The conclusions drawn are that Internet gambling poses very significant challenges to regulators; that awareness-raising, education and training in relation to Internet technology are very urgent; that agencies need to adapt existing regulatory regimes, and develop new strategies for unlicensed and extra-jurisdictional Internet gambling; and that governments need to establish contingency plans in case Internet gambling substitutes for licensed gambling, and reduces gambling tax revenues. http://www.anu.edu.au/people/Roger.Clarke/II/IGambReg.html

    National Gambling Impact Study Commission Report. Report from Casino Law looks at areas to regulate including youth and compulsive gambler limitations and recommends governmental regulation to limit spread of on-line gambling. http://www.casinolaw.com/ngisc/chap5_Internetgambling.html

    Gambling on the Internet Cynthia R. Janower, Boston Consulting Group. Explores the political and social implications of the online gambling industry and the ability of the existing legal framework to halt the industry's development. Making gambling more broadly available via the networks threatens heightened crime, an increased incidence of compulsive gambling, and cannibalized spending in other areas of the economy. Yet, U.S. state and federal laws are inadequate to deal with the onslaught of virtual gaming. http://www.ascusc.org/jcmc/vol2/issue2/janower.html


Internet Auctions Contents of this section
  1. Tips for Consumers
  2. Recommended Policies
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  1. Tips for Consumers
  2. BBB Tips for Consumers - Online Auctions Although directed toward consumers generally, this quick read may prove helpful to internet auction users as the auction area of the Web booms. http://www.bbb.org/library/auctions.asp

    FTC Consumer Alert!: Online Auctions Another consumer-oriented document, this online pamphlet provides much of the same language as the BBB's for tips on buying through online auctions. http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/conline/pubs/alerts/gonealrt.htm

  3. Recommended Policies
  4. Software & Information Industry Association (SIIA) Recommended Policies and Procedures for the Auction of Software on Internet Auction Sites SIIA is a trade association of the software and information industries, representing over 1,400 high-tech companies that develop and market software and electronic content for business, education, consumers, the Internet, and entertainment. Contains three proposals for policies to prevent auctioning of pirated software. http://www.siia.net/piracy/programs/suggestedonlineauctionpolicies.htm


Authentication/ Electronic Signatures Contents of this section
  1. Authentication
  2. Encryption
Back to Table of Contents

  1. Authentication
  2. American Bar Association Section of Science and Technology Information Security Committee: Digital Signature Guidelines Tutorial explains the value of digital signatures in legal applications and how the technology can be used as an alternative to traditional signatures. http://www.abanet.org/scitech/ec/isc/dsg-tutorial.html

    VeriSign: A private digital signature service. Its resource page includes: white papers, standards, tutorials and FAQs. http://www.verisign.com/repository/index.html

    American Bar Association, Section of Science and Technology -: CyberNotary, the result of a joint effort by the ABA and the USCIB to develop the professional practices and criteria for certification of a new electronic commerce intermediary. CyberNotaries will have legal and technical qualification to authenticate the identities of the parties to a transaction, attest to the accuracy of the content of documents transmitted electronically between the parties and assess the capacity of the parties to contract and the enforceability of the contract in the respective jurisdictions of the parties. http://www.abanet.org/scitech/ec/cn/cybernote.html

    American Bar Association Section of Science and Technology Information Security Committee: Downloadable copy of the Digital Signature Guidelines http://www.abanet.org/scitech/ec/isc/dsg-toc.html

    State Government Electronic and Digital Signature Legislation: A compilation of legislation on the status, scope and other relevant information about electronic signature legislation. From the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. http://www.abanet.org/scitech/ec/isc/dsg-tutorial.html

  3. Encryption
  4. The OECD Cryptography Policy Guidelines and the Report on Background and Issues of Cryptography Policy, (1997) http://www.oecd.org/dsti/sti/it/secur/prod/e-crypto.htm

    Americans for Computer Privacy (ACP): A broad-based coalition of more than 100 companies and 40 associations representing financial services, manufacturing, telecommunications, high-tech and transportation, law enforcement, civil-liberty, pro-family and taxpayer groups. "ACP supports policies that advance the rights of American citizens to encode information without fear of government intrusion, and advocates the lifting of export restrictions on U.S.-made encryption products." http://www.computerprivacy.org/news/955374280.shtml

    Center for Democracy and Technology: Information page on Encryption. Good general source for explanation of the issues. http://www.cdt.org/crypto/

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